Superconductivity is a phenomenon where certain materials show no electrical resistance. Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853-1926) was a Dutch physicist, he produced extreme cryogenic temperatures and that led to the discovery of superconductivity in 1911. He found that some materials loses its electrical resistance at very low temperatures. Kamerlingh Onnes put the theory of superconductivity.
Since that date several theories of superconductivity has shown. In the year1933, Meissner and Ochsenfeld came up with the Meissner effect , when they discovered that superconductors expelled applied magnetic fields. London theory, brothers Fritz and Heinz put that theory in the year1935. Then in the year 1950 came Ginzburg-Landau with phenomenological theory. That was followed by the microscopic BCS theory in the year 1957 by Maxwell and Reynolds.
The final theory of superconductors was put by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer in the year 1957. While the credit of revealing the phenomenon of superconductivity goes to Nikolay Bogolyubov in the year 1958.
After exactly 100 years from that theory, came a theory of a new kind of superconductivity. The University of Massachusetts Amherst associated with Sweden’s Royal Institute of Technology have announced that their physicists have a new theory of superconductivity.
They found a new type of superconductors beside type 1 and type 2, they called type 1.5 superconductivity.
Superconductivity is a state where electric charge flows without resistance. In Type I and Type II, charge flow patterns are dramatically different. Type I, discovered in 1911, has two state-defining properties: Lack of electric resistance and the fact that it does not allow an external magnetic field to pass through it. When a magnetic field is applied to these materials, superconducting electrons produce a strong current on the surface which in turn produces a magnetic field in the opposite direction. Inside this type of superconductor, the external magnetic field and the field created by the surface flow of electrons add up to zero. That is, they cancel each other out.
Type II superconductivity was predicted to exist by a Russian theoretical physicist who said there should be superconducting materials where a complicated flow of superconducting electrons can happen deep in the interior. In Type II material, a magnetic field can gradually penetrate, carried by vortices like tiny electronic tornadoes, Babaev explains. The combined works that theoretically described Type I and II superconductivity won the Nobel Prize in 2003.
Classifying superconductors in this way turned out to be very robust: All superconducting materials discovered in the last half-century can be classified as either, Babaev says. But he believed a state must exist that does not fall into either camp: Type 1.5. By working out the theoretical bases for superconducting materials, he had predicted that in some materials, superconducting electrons could be classed as two competing types or subpopulations, one behaving like electrons in Type I material, the other behaving like electrons in a Type II material.
Babaev also said that Type 1.5 superconductors should form something like a super-regular Swiss cheese, with clusters of tightly packed vortex droplets of two kinds of electron: one type bunched together and a second type flowing on the surface of vortex clusters in a way similar to how electrons flow on the exterior of Type I superconductors. These vortex clusters are separated by “voids,” with no vortices, no currents and no magnetic field.