Improving the delivery of chemotherapy with graphene

graphene photo
Photo by CORE-Materials

A new study published in IOP Publishing’s journal 2D Materials has proposed using graphene as an alternative coating for catheters to improve the delivery of chemotherapy drugs.

Source: Improving the delivery of chemotherapy with graphene

Our comments

This shows that existing materials is being used in new ways all the time, and that is what true innovation is all about. Finding new uses lot already existing technology is a whole lot easier than coming up with new materials.

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Facts About Headaches And Migraines

Facts About Headaches And MigrainesThere are several parts of the head that can feel the headaches. The brain itself can not feel the pain. We feel headaches in the nose, eyes, arteries and veins, ears, nerves, as well as in the sinus, neck muscles, or the tissues.

Headaches are caused by various causes. Some of these are stress, fatigue, overuse of tobacco, alcohol or during the menstrual period for women.

Some fast facts about headache:

  • Headaches are pains in a part or the whole head or the neck.
  • Headaches can strike one side or both sides of the head or in just a specific location in the head.
  • Headaches can hit suddenly or gradually.
  • Headaches can last for an hour or it might extend to several days.

There are several types of headaches

Tension headaches, they are the most common headaches for adults. It is caused by stress, depression, head injury, staying in one position for a long time, drinking a lot of caffeine and other reasons.

Cluster headaches is called so due to its appearance in patterns. It is one of the most painful headaches.

Sinus headaches are pains in the cheekbones, forehead, or the bridge of the nose. It is mainly caused due to allergies.

Rebound headaches are caused due cutting medications or the overuse of medications for migraine headaches or tension headaches.

Migraine headaches. Migraines hit one side of the head. Migraines are accompanied with feeling of nausea, sensitivity for light and sound and pains in one side of the head. Migraine hit women more than men especially during the menstrual period and pregnancy due to the disturbance of hormones.

You can take some medications for the headache but you should consult your doctor immediately if the headache is accompanied with fever, vomiting or nausea, lack of concentration, vision disturbances or num feelings in the arms or legs.

What is your best tip to get rid of headache?

Use the comment form below to share your experience.

Negative Mood; Positive Mood And How do you change how you feel?

Mood Changing is when a person’s personality changes very quickly.

Sometimes there are good reasons for these changes, other times there may not be.
For example, you may receive good or bad news that causes you to go through a change in your mood.
You may be startled or shocked in some way.
When your mood changes for these reasons then it is a natural occurrences and it is expected.
But when a person has rapid mood swings for no apparent reason, then that becomes a problem.
So, There are different causes of mood swings, like the following:

  • Mood swings can be caused by PMS. PMS stands for Pre-Menstrual Syndrome.
  • During this time a woman’s hormones are going through a lot of changes that can make them go from happy to sad or vice versa very quickly.
  • A mood swing that will not go away on its own, is the ones that are caused from a person suffering from*bipolar*. This can be a very serious mental illness that needs to be treated. If a person that is bipolar does not get the help they need it could have some very serious consequences. It could even eventually ruin any chance they have of living a normal life.
  • Mood swings are sometimes a very natural thing that everyone experiences at different times in their life. If you only go through them once in awhile then you shouldn’t worry.
  • However, if you begin to go through extreme mood swings and have no idea why, then you should visit your doctor to see if there is a medical condition that is causing you to go through these problems.
  • Severe mood swings can damage relationships and cause friendships to be lost, don’t let this happen to you if you are having problems.

So, on some days you feel a bit negative. Or just not that motivated or energetic. You don’t care that much really.
You can turn a negative/bad/boring mood, morning, afternoon or evening into a more positive one.
Just try to do the following:-

  • Go out running or walking, go to the gym or do exercises at home; Those are the most effective ways to add energy and a more positive outlook to your regular day.
  • Listen to/watch inspirational material.
  • You know reading inspirational material can lead you to realize and discover things about your self. things that you might not have realized before.
  • Like for instance, you can discover that you are a genius inventor, or that you have a great voice or you have some kind of a talent that can make you useful to your self and to your community as well. You may discover a great poet in your self.
  • Why live like a doom and gloom while you can use all the wasted energy in something useful and good.
  • Instead of reading the Newspapers and getting hammered with negative bloody news and weird strange views on the crazy world we are living into, try watching or listening to one of your favorite personal development products.
  • Talk to your girlfriend or to your wife (unless your wife is the real reason for your mood changing of course) or to whoever close to your heart. You can then cry with them, laugh with them or even scream with them to let go/out whatever that is causing the bad mood you have.
  • If you change how you move and use your body, your mood will change. If you for instance want to feel happier, force a smile for about a few seconds. You’ll feel happier.
  • If you want to feel confident, stand up and walk around for a few minutes in a confident way (slowly, head held high, posture relaxed but not slumped). You’ll feel more confident.
  • You can do these things for the specific effects.
  • But a better way to change your mood is to just combine everything at once. Smile while you’re walking around in a confident and relaxed way. Get it all in there to maximize the effect.
  • Don’t go around complaining and be negative about everything. Going around appreciating good things in your life is a good and a positive thing to do.
  • Like you can appreciate your food, the weather, your health, your friends and family.
  • The funny thing is that if you just start appreciating something you can very quickly start jumping around with your attention and appreciate just about anything around you. You may start with the food you are eating right now. Then move your attention to the phone and appreciate that you can contact anyone – and be contacted by anyone – you’d like. You might then move your attention outside, through the window and see the wonderful sunshine, then kids having fun out there and then a really attractive person walking by. And so on.
  • Try doing that for a few minutes. Try to come up with all the things in yourself and your world that you can appreciate.
  • Move your attention around from appreciation-point to appreciation-point, you gonna feel your mood in a lot more positive and enthusiastic status.
  • What I personally do when i have my mood changing to a bad/negative one, I listen to songs that i love so much and I close my eyes and I imagine my self a Queen; a president; a warrior princess or I imagine my self anything or anyone that i want to be and live with that for sometime till my mood change. And I tell you the imagination is a great gift, use it for sometime, it won’t bite you…
  • It often doesn’t take that much to change how you feel. And acting as you’d like to feel make everyday situations a lot more interesting and can open up new possibilities and opportunities in your life.
  • If you have a hard time doing something, a hard time getting started, a hard time changing your mood with the suggestions above just do what you need to do anyway.
  • You are not your thoughts and emotions. They aren’t your boss or parents. You don’t have to obey them. You are the observer of your thoughts and emotions. Sometimes you listen to them. And sometimes you just see them as blabbering going on and on in your mind and body. And then you just go. You do what you want to do anyway.


Bipolar disorder is a manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. Symptoms of bipolar disorder are severe. They are different from the normal ups and downs that everyone goes through from time to time. Bipolar disorder symptoms can result in damaged relationships, poor job or school performance, and even suicide. But bipolar disorder can be treated, and people with this illness can lead full and productive lives.

Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder

Panic Attacks Definition

  • A sudden surge of overwhelming anxiety and fear.
  • Your heart pounds and you can’t breathe.
  • You feel dizzy and sick to your stomach.
  • You feel endangered and unable to escape in a specific situation.
  • Panic attacks can lead to panic disorder and other problems if left untreated.
  • In many cases, panic attacks strike out without any warning.
  • Often, there is no clear reason for the attack.
  • A panic attack may be a one-time occurrence, but many people experience repeat episodes. For instance, crossing a bridge.

You may experience one or more panic attacks, yet be otherwise perfectly happy and healthy.Or your panic attacks may occur as part of another disorder, such as panic disorder, social phobia, or depression.
But regardless of the cause, panic attacks are treatable. There are many effective treatments you can use to deal with the symptoms.

Signs and Symptoms of a Panic Attack

Panic attacks often strike when you’re away from home, but they can happen anywhere and at any time.
You may have one while you’re in a store shopping, walking down the street, driving in your car, or sitting on the couch at home.
The signs and symptoms of a panic attack develop abruptly and usually reach their peak within 10 minutes. Most panic attacks end within 20 to 30 minutes, and they rarely last more than an hour.
A full-blown panic attack includes a combination of the following signs and symptoms:

  • Shortness of breath or hyperventilation
  • Heart palpitations or a racing heart
  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Trembling or shaking
  • Choking feeling
  • Feeling unreal or detached from your surroundings
  • Nausea or upset stomach
  • Feeling dizzy, lightheaded, or faint
  • Numbness or tingling sensations
  • Fear of dying, losing control, or going crazy

Most of the symptoms of a panic attack are physical, and many times these symptoms are so severe that people think they’re having a heart attack.

Signs and symptoms of panic disorder

  • Some people who’ve experienced panic attacks go on to develop panic disorder.
  • Panic disorder is characterized by repeated panic attacks, combined with major changes in behavior or persistent anxiety over having further attacks.
  • Experience frequent, unexpected panic attacks that aren’t tied to a specific situation.
  • Worry a lot about having another panic attack.
  • Behaving differently because of the panic attacks, such as avoiding places where you’ve previously panicked.

While a single panic attack may only last a few minutes, the effects of the experience can leave a lasting imprint.
The memory of the intense fear and terror that you felt during the attacks can negatively impact your self-confidence and cause serious disruption to your everyday life.

Eventually, this leads to the following panic disorder symptoms:

  • The feeling of anxious and tense.
  • Phobic avoidance. You begin to avoid certain situations or environments. This avoidance may be based on the belief that the situation you’re avoiding caused a previous panic attack. Or you may avoid places where escape would be difficult or help would be unavailable if you had a panic attack.
  • Because of these fears, you start avoiding more and more situations. For example, you might begin to avoid crowded places such as shopping malls.
  • You might also avoid cars, airplanes, subways, and other forms of travel. In more severe cases, you might only feel safe at home.

Causes of panic attacks and panic disorder

  • Although the exact causes of panic attacks and panic disorder are unclear, the tendency to have panic attacks runs in families. There also appears to be a connection with major life transitions such as graduating from college and entering the workplace, getting married, and having a baby. Severe stress, such as the death of a loved one, divorce, or job loss can also trigger a panic attack.
  • Panic attacks can also be caused by medical conditions and other physical causes. If you’re suffering from symptoms of panic, it’s important to see a doctor and seek medical help.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

  • Cognitive behavioral therapy is generally viewed as the most effective form of treatment for panic attacks and panic disorder.
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy focuses on the thinking patterns and behaviors that are sustaining or triggering the panic attacks. It helps you look at your fears in a more realistic light.

For example, if you had a panic attack while driving, what is the worst thing that would really happen? While you might have to pull over to the side of the road, you are not likely to crash your car or have a heart attack. Once your learn that nothing truly disastrous is going to happen, the experience of panic becomes less terrifying.

Exposure therapy for panic attacks and panic disorder

In exposure therapy for panic disorder, you are exposed to the physical sensations of panic in a safe and controlled environment, giving you the opportunity to learn healthier ways of coping. You may be asked to hyperventilate, shake your head from side to side, or hold your breath. These different exercises cause sensations similar to the symptoms of panic. With each exposure, you become less afraid of these internal bodily sensations and feel a greater sense of control over your panic.

Overcoming panic and Exploring effective therapies

  • If you’re suffering from panic disorder, therapy can teach you how to prevent and cope with panic attacks. Even a short course of treatment can help! Many people experience a drastic reduction in symptoms within 6 to 12 treatment sessions.

Medication treatment for panic attacks and panic disorder

  • Medication can be used to temporarily control or reduce some of they symptoms of panic disorder. However, it doesn’t treat or resolve the problem. Medication be useful in severe cases, but it should not be the only treatment pursued. Medication is most effective when combined with other treatments, such as therapy and lifestyle changes, that address the underlying causes of panic disorder.

The medications used for panic attacks and panic disorder include:

  • Antidepressants are sometimes used in the treatment of panic attacks and panic disorder. However, it takes several weeks before they begin to work, so you have to take them continuously, not just during a panic attack.
  • Benzodiazepines are anti-anxiety drugs that act very quickly (usually within 30 minutes to an hour). Taking them during a panic attack provides rapid relief of symptoms. However, benzodiazepines are highly addictive and have serious withdrawal symptoms, so they should be used with caution.
When it comes to panic attacks, professional treatment and therapy can make a big difference. But there are many things you can do to help yourself, too:
  • Learn about panic. Simply knowing more about panic can go a long way towards relieving your distress. So read up on anxiety, panic disorder, and the fight-or-flight response experienced during a panic attack. You’ll learn that the sensations and feelings you have when you panic are normal and that you aren’t going crazy.
  • Avoid smoking and caffeine. Smoking and caffeine can provoke panic attacks in people who are susceptible. As a result, it’s wise to avoid cigarettes, coffee, and other caffeinated beverages. Also be careful with medications that contain stimulants, such as diet pills and non-drowsy cold medications.
  • Learn how to control your breathing. Hyperventilation brings on many sensations (such as lightheadedness and tightness of the chest) that occur during a panic attack.
  • Deep breathing, on the other hand, can relieve the symptoms of panic. By learning to control your breathing, you develop a coping skill that you can use to calm yourself down when you begin to feel anxious.
  • If you know how to control your breathing, you are also less likely to create the very sensations that you are afraid of.
  • Practice relaxation techniques. When practiced regularly, activities such as yoga, meditation, and progressive muscle relaxation strengthen the body’s relaxation response – the opposite of the stress response involved in anxiety and panic. And not only do these relaxation practices promote relaxation, but they also increase feelings of joy and equanimity. So make time for them in your daily routine.

Contact lenses

Contact lenses help diabetes
A biochemical engineer from the University of Western Ontario came up with probably one of the most useful inventions for diabetics. Diabetes don’t have to suffer anymore of drawing blood regularly so that they would check there sugar level.
Hydrogen contact lenses provide a new and non painful way of checking the level of glucose by changing colors each time the level of sugar in blood increases or lowers. This is possible due to nanoparticles implanted in the lenses. These particles come into contact with glucose molecules found in human tears. As a result of chemical reaction, the lenses change their color, warning the person about the sugar levels.

Superhuman Vision
Contact Lenses With Circuits and Lights that can help vision-impaired people, holographic driving control panels and even as a way to surf the Web on the go.
Engineers at the University of Washington have for the first time used manufacturing techniques at microscopic scales to combine a flexible, biologically safe contact lens with an imprinted electronic circuit and lights.
There are many possible uses for virtual displays. Drivers or pilots could see a vehicle’s speed projected onto the windshield. Video-game companies could use the contact lenses to completely immerse players in a virtual world without restricting their range of motion. And for communications, people on the go could surf the Internet on a midair virtual display screen that only they would be able to see.
The lenses were tested on rabbits for up to 20 minutes and the animals showed no adverse effects.
Installing or removing the bionic eye would be as easy as popping a contact lens in or out.
Building the lenses was a challenge because materials that are safe for use in the body, such as the flexible organic materials used in contact lenses, are delicate. Manufacturing electrical circuits, however, involves inorganic materials, scorching temperatures and toxic chemicals. Researchers built the circuits from layers of metal only a few nanometers thick, about one thousandth the width of a human hair, and constructed light-emitting diodes one third of a millimeter across. They then sprinkled the grayish powder of electrical components onto a sheet of flexible plastic. The shape of each tiny component dictates which piece it can attach to, a micro fabrication technique known as self-assembly pull the pieces into position.

Healed by Contact Lenses
Getting drugs into the eye is difficult because the eye is well adapted at keeping foreign objects out, so most drugs are washed out by tears, disappear down the eye’s drainage system, or simply spilled outside the eye. So to overcome this problem soft contact lenses steeped in a solution of drug is used However, it is hard to full a dose large enough to be clinically significant into lenses.
So Mark Byrne, a chemical engineer at Auburn University in Alabama, has a developed a contact-lens material that can hold much greater concentrations of drugs and release them more slowly.
The trick is to design the molecular structure of the lens material to mimic tissue-receptor sites that the drug will target within the body. The goal is to make the dummy receptors strike a balance, not holding the drug too tight, but also only releasing it slowly into the eye.
Byrne has set up a company – OcuMedic – to commercialise the idea and is already developing anti-fungal contact lenses for treating eye infections in horses.

Skin Cancer Proving Fatal For Men

A one minute Knowledge

Do you know that men are dying from skin cancer than women are?!

Despite more women being diagnosed with the illness, the level of female deaths remains below that of men.

The British Skin Foundation commented on that issue, that It’s likely  the findings reflect the difference in attitude between the sexes when it comes to sun safety and, ultimately, skin cancer.”

Hey guys, why don’t you work on getting some sun safety and skin care! consult women!


According to research conducted at Northwestern University, diamonds help heal wounds faster. Amazing right? The phenomenon occurs since nanodiamonds bond effectively with insulin, which is used to treat nasty wounds.The scientist Dean Ho bonded insulin with nanodiamonds to create clusters that release insulin slowly to more targetted areas without being evasive to the patient. The reason nanodiamond-insulin clusters can target infected areas more efficiently than just insulin by itself is because the nanodiamond-insulin cluster needs a base ph level for a reaction, and this base ph level is found only in infected tissue.

Aspergers Syndrome Symptoms

Autism spectrum is classified to different disorders as Autism, Asperger syndrome, Childhood disintegrative disorder and Rett syndrome. All these disorders have common symptoms, such as social deficits, communication difficulties, repetitive behaviors and interests and sometimes accompanied by cognitive delays.

Asperger syndrome is named after the Austrian pediatrician Hans Asperger, whom studied and described the symptoms in the year 1944, but it was not diagnosed until 50 years later by the English psychiatrist Lorna Wing who named it.

The patients of Asperger syndrome don’t have cognitive delays, but they  have high intelligence. The causes of Asperger syndrome are not identified, but it is probably caused by genetic bases. Asperger syndrome or Asperger disorder is distinguished by major difficulties in social interaction, along with the other symptoms.

There are 22 symptoms that characterize Asperger syndrome 

Loneliness, manifested in at least two of the following four signs:
– No close friends;
– Avoids others;
– Has no interest in acquiring friends;
– Prefers to be single
Impaired social interaction, manifested in at least one of the following 5 symptoms:
– Refers to others only with his own needs;
– Awkward social relationships;
– One-sided relationship with peers;
– Difficulty in recognizing the feelings of others;
– Detachment from the feelings of other people
Impaired non-verbal communication, manifested in at least one of the following 7 signs:
– Limited facial expression;
– Not able to read emotions in facial expressions of others;
– Not able to transmit information through the eyes;
– Does not look at others;
– Does not use hands to express himself;
– Gestures are large and clumsy;
– Comes too close to others while speaking
Poor speech, appearing in at least two of the following 6 symptoms:
– Violations of intonation;
– Talks too much;
– Says too little;
– Inability to engage in conversation;
– Idiosyncratic use of words;
– Repetitive speech

A Treat For A Sign Of Alzheimer

The cruel disease, Alzheimer effects on the brain. It took the name from Alois Alzheimer the German psychiatrist whom first described the disease. One of the first parts in the brain affected by the disease is the part responsible for smelling.

The researchers of Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, have reached for the reason of this effect. They made a research on a mouse which suffers from the disease, they reached for the responsible protein for the problem. They found that the smell sense is lost due to the presence of the protein that is called amyloid beta. They also reached that by removing that protein, the smell sense can be restored.

Smell loss can be caused by a number of ailments, exposures and injuries; but since the 1970s, it has been identified as an early sign of this disease. The new research shows how and where in the brain this happens, and that the impairment it can be treated.
There is currently no effective treatment or cure for the disease, marked by eroding senses, cognition and coordination, leading to death.
Currently 5.3 million Americans suffer from Alzheimer’s and the number is expected to triple to 16 million by 2050, according to the Alzheimer’s Association.
Wesson worked with Anne H. Borkowski, a researcher at the Nathan S. Kline Institute in Orangeburg, N.Y., Gary E. Landreth, professor of neuroscience at Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, and Ralph A. Nixon, Efrat Levy and Donald A. Wilson, of the New York University School of Medicine.
They found that just a tiny amount of amyloid beta – too little to be seen on today’s brain scans – causes smell loss in mouse models.
Amyloid beta plaque accumulated first in parts of the brain associated with smell, well before accumulating in areas associated with cognition and coordination.
Early on, the olfactory bulb, where odor information from the nose is processed, became hyperactive.
Over time, however, the level of amyloid beta increased in the olfactory bulb and the bulb became hypoactive. Despite spending more time sniffing, the mice failed to remember smells and became incapable of telling the difference between odors.
The same pattern is seen in people with the disease. They become unresponsive to smells as they age.
While losses in the olfactory system occurred, the rest of the mouse model brain, including the hippocampus, which is a center for memory, continued to act normally early in the disease stage. The team then sought to reverse the effects. Mice were given a synthetic liver x-receptor agonist, a drug that clears amyloid beta from the brain. After two weeks on the drug, the mice could process smells normally.
After withdrawal of the drug for one week, impairments returned.
Wesson and his team are now following-up on these discoveries to determine how amyloid spreads throughout the brain, to learn methods to slow disease progression.

Who Discovered Polio And Its Vaccine?

Polio also called Poliomyelitis is a viral infectious disease, that spread through contaminated food or drinks with the virus. Polio destroies the nerves which lead to weaken the muscles and causes the paralysis.

Who discovered the Polio disease?
Polio was first noticed by the Egyptians as there was evidences in their paintings about polio patients. Polio then was the cause of paralysis and death of so many people. Also the Roman Emperor Claudius was hit by the polio which caused him to limp.

The symptoms of poliomyelitis have been described by many names. In the early nineteenth century the disease was known variously as: Dental Paralysis, Infantile Spinal Paralysis, Essential Paralysis of Children, Regressive Paralysis, Myelitis of the Anterior Horns, Tephromyelitis (from the Greek tephros, meaning “ash-gray”) and Paralysis of the Morning. In 1789 the first clinical description of poliomyelitis was provided by the British physician Michael Underwood—he refers to polio as “a debility of the lower extremities”. The first medical report on poliomyelitis was by Jakob Heine, in 1840; he called the disease Lähmungszastände der unteren Extremitäten. Karl Oskar Medin was the first to empirically study a poliomyelitis epidemic in 1890. This work, and the prior classification by Heine, led to the disease being known as Heine-Medin disease.

Who discovered the Polio vaccine?
In the year 1936, Maurice Brodie an American researcher, extracted polio from the spinal cord of a monkey, his attempt to find a vaccine failed as most of the children suffered from allergy when the vaccine was tested on them.

In the year 1948, John Enders (1897-1985) an American medical assistant. He and his group were able to cultivate the polio virus on a human tissue in a test tube.

In the year 1955, the breakthrough happened when Jonas Salk (1914-1995) the American virologist and medical researcher, reached for the first polio vaccine that can be injected to the children. The vaccine was made from inactive polio virus.

In the year 1963, Albert Sabin (1906-1993) the American medical researcher, was able to introduce the oral polio vaccine.

Both the polio vaccine injection and the oral polio vaccine have proved their great great contribution till today, as polio now disapeared in many countries.