Enthusiasts hopes to solve space debris problem in 2016

According to a press release, the solution for the space debris issue will be a crowdfunded cubesat Mayak equipped with a special aerobraking system. The rocket Soyuz will take the satellite to the orbit in the second half of 2016.

Space debris is natural (meteoroid) and artificial (man-made) particles orbiting the Earth. Most decommissioned satellites become space junk for years and decades, preventing usage of orbits for commercial and governmental projects. Spacecrafts on low Earth orbit are affected by low-density atmosphere and slowly are running out of altitude.

Typical decay time for a 600 km (373 mi) orbit is years. On-board rocket engines can be used to speed up the process, but it is an unreliable and expensive solution.

Mayak will conduct orbital tests of deployable aerobraking device which will allow to significantly rise spacecraft drag and speed up decay. Aerobraking will allow to lower Mayak’s orbital time from year to just one month.

As the Mayak project is implemented by enthusiasts via crowdfunding, all project data (3D models, drawings, electrical schemes, source code, test programs and test results) will be published for open access.

Mayak has collected approx. $33 000 for testing via two Russian crowdfunding campaigns in 2014 and 2016. Roscosmos has authorized project access to the Soyuz-2 launch vehicle in summer-2016 as a part of the Kanopus-V-IK launch campaign.

The Mayak team started a new campaign on Kickstarter to raise money for manufacturing of a production unit.

Photos and videos are available here.

A Free Floating Planet Is Discovered

The new discovered planet does not evolve around any sun, so it just wonder through space without exposing to Gravaity. The planet size is huge as it reaches more than four times of Jupiter. The astronomers that discovered the planet gave it a code name CFBDSIR2149.

Astronomers have long theorised about the possibility of free-floating planets that are not trapped by the gravitational attraction of a nearby star but this is the first time they have been able to confirm one’s existence.

English: The , located at the in Hawai'i.
English: The , located at the in Hawai’i. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Detailed calculations carried by at team of Canadian and French scientists show that the planet is comparatively young, between 50 and 120 million years old, with a surface temperature of 400C. This, combined with its size, rules out the possibility of it being a larger “brown dwarf” star, astronomers said.

A joint investigation between astronomers working on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and the Very Large Telescope in Chile operated by the European Southern Observatory led to an accurate estimate of the planet’s age, a key fact that ruled out the possibility of it being a brown dwarf.

The free-floating planet appears to be part of larger grouping of about 30 young stars, all with a similar composition, that are moving through space together. This helped the scientists to pinpoint the planet’s age.

NASA’s New Trial For Discovering Pluto And Its Moons

The New Horizons is the spacecraft that NASA sent to discover Pluto and its moons. As Hubble Space Telescope discovered a new moon that orbits Pluto. So NASA Launched the spacecraft that will reach there in the year 2015.

The newly discovered moon, which has been provisionally designated as P5, was detected in none separate sets of images taken by Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 between June 26 and July 9. It is estimated to be irregular in shape, measuring six to 15 miles (9.6 to 24 km) across, and is in a 58,000-mile (93,342 km) diameter circular orbit. The orbit is assumed to be on the same plane as other satellites in the system, resulting in the five moons creating what team leader Mark Showalter of the SETI Institute describes as “a series of neatly nested orbits, like Russian dolls.”

That such a complex collection of satellites is orbiting such a small planet – it’s roughly 1,433 mile (2,306 km) diameter is around 66 percent that of the Moon – has intrigued the team, who say this latest discovery provides additional clues as to how the Pluto system formed and evolved. The smart money is on the theory that Pluto’s moons are the result of a collision between the dwarf planet and another large Kuiper Belt object billions of years ago.

Following the discovery of Charon, Pluto’s largest moon, in 1978 in observations made at the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C., Hubble uncovered two additional small moons, Nix and Hydra, in 2006, and another, P4, in 2011.

This could pose problems for the New Horizon spacecraft, which will be moving past Pluto at a speed of 30,000 mph (48,280 km/h) and could be destroyed in a collision with orbital debris the size of a ball bearing.

Stars…Look How They Shine For You

The stars are lovely and magnificent. Without stars human beings wouldn’t exist. Animals and flowers wouldn’t exist. Just about everything on Earth, including Earth itself, wouldn’t exist had starts decided to not so lovingly explode and give us the essential elements needed to produce us.

The elements the stars give off are carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, iron and just about every other element essential to create life and allow it to evolve. That is the beauty of the universe right there. Without stars, nothing would matter. Had the stars that were created after the big bang not explode via supernova I would not be here to right about it.

But stars are more mysterious than we know. Most of our knowledge about stars come from our own star, the Sun. We’ve learned that some stars can be as small as having a circumference of 25 miles, which are called neutron stars. These stars come into existence after a star supernovas. All remaining energy and circumference of these red giants violently collapses and turns into these neutron stars. The amazing this is how these neutron stars contain the same mass as they normally had in their earlier years (millions of years prior in the stars existence).

The larger stars we can experience are call supergiants. One supergiant named Betelgeuse is 650 times larger than the Sun. This star are so massive compared to our own son, that if you drew it on a standard piece of computer paper, our own Sun would be no larger than a tiny little spec. Now imagine looking up into the sky and seeing a sun 650 times larger up in the sky. I think it’s pretty safe to say that star would take up the entire sky.

Here’s something else to imagine: there are 70 sextillion stars in the known universe. That is 70,000 million million million stars (or 10^22 stars). The scary thing is that there could be more… many more. We know for a fact that there are stars so far away from us that light simply hasn’t had the time to reach us yet. This is incredibly difficult to imagine but it’s true! If there are 10^22 stars, you’d have to imagine that there are even more planets than that.

Look up at the night sky. Pick out dime-sized part in the sky and take the most powerful telescope on earth and look straight out into the sky. You’ll be able to see at least 10,000 galaxies. Now,  a star dies and supernovas in a galaxy once every hundred years. That’s really rare, isn’t it? But if you look into that one small part of the sky, you can see anywhere between 10 to even 100 plus stars exploding on a given night. The odds of things happening are always in our favor.  So while it may be 1 in a billion, or even a trillion, that life started on Earth, look at how big the universe is. While 1 in a billion may seem like an incredibly, incredibly unlikely and rare circumstance, we live in a universe where rare things happen all the time. We just need to be grateful it happened to us.

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The Space Taxi Could Be Launched By Nasa By 2017

Nasa contractors and European space agency Astrium have produced the space taxi. The space taxi could start working by the year 2017.

The US space agency is funding space taxi design work at four firms – Boeing, Space Exploration Technologies, Sierra Nevada Corp, and Blue Origin, a start-up owned by Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos.
Nasa is reviewing bids for at least two, 21-month integrated design contracts, valued at $300 million to $500 million apiece.
ATK, which built the space shuttle booster rockets, teamed with Astrium, an EADS company that is one of the manufacturers of Europe’s Ariane 5 rockets, to bid for Nasa space taxi development funds last year but was not selected. The company continued to work on the project with its own funding, said Kent Rominger, a five-time shuttle astronaut who now serves as an ATK vice president and Liberty programme manager.
ATK’s new proposal adds a composite seven-person capsule, a launch escape system, propulsion module, avionics, an operations plan and other components for a complete space launch system.
Mr Rominger said Liberty could be ready to fly crew to the station in 2015 for less than what Russia charges for rides in its Soyuz capsules.
The Liberty rocket’s first stage would be an extended space shuttle booster rocket, a design originally developed under Nasa’s now-cancelled Ares 1 rocket programme.
Liberty’s second-stage engine would be provided by Astrium. The newly announced capsule, also named Liberty, is a composite spaceship developed by Nasa as a potential alternative to the Orion deep-space capsule.

On Black Holes

Black holes continue to be one of the most complex and unknown objects in the known universe. As we all know black holes are objects with so much gravitational force that nothing, not even light, can escape its grasp.

Black holes, like a solar flare, are known to release massive amounts of energy in the form of a quasar. A quasar is formed when a black hole is essentially “sucking up” more than it can handle, and extremely large amounts of energy erupts at both ends of a black hole, that can be seen deep into space.

Scientists have wondered for years how much energy is emitted, and now they know. Some quasar’s
have been seen that consume an estimated 600 planet Earth’s of matter and energy a minute. These quasar’s are capable of emitting more energy than an entire solar system will give off in its entire life time. Tapping into this power source for even an hour could give Earthling’s an unfathomable amount of energy. Unfortunately, we have nowhere near the technology to do such a thing yet. But we can dream!

Black holes also cause something called time dilution. The more gravity that exists in a given location, the more strain that it causes on the fabric of time. It’s simple, really. The closer you get to black hole, the slower time flows. All of this is in relation to Earth, of course! Someone who is parked just outside the cusp of a black hole will start to age much slower than someone back home on Earth. Neat stuff huh?

It has been proven that most large galaxies have a super massive black hole at their center. Our own Milky Way Galaxy was formed around such a super massive black hole. Extremely close to the center of our galaxy planets and stars orbit this black hole at unimaginable speeds.

While all of these things have been confirmed in science one such thing still disappoints scientists. We are still visually unable to actually see a black hole. But that’s because of logistics, no light escapes a black hole, so you can’t possibly see nothing. But thanks to computers, telescopes, and numerous other scientific methods we can easily distinguish black holes and where they are.

Solar Flares – Beautiful and Dangerous

Solar flares are beautiful, dangerous, powerful, and potentially a massive source of energy that is yet to be harnessed.

Solar flares give off enormous amounts of radiation. So much, in fact, that is the star nearest to us (not our Sun) were to have a massive solar flare in our solar system’s direction, our Earth could possibly lose its atmosphere. That’s right. The star is light years away but still powerful enough to affect us.

Ions are released at nearly the speed of light when a solar flare erupts from the Sun’s surface. Earth would be inhabitable if we didn’t have an atmosphere to nearly completely shield us from this Solar activity. We see this danger when astronauts go into space. Mission control back in NASA has to do their absolute best to watch for any solar activity. Such a flare in the direction of these astronauts could be incredibly dangerous, if not fatal.

One benefit of a solar flare is that it causes solar wind, which is a form of usable energy. Technology is currently being developed that would allow us to gather and harness this energy in space, miles away from Earth’s atmosphere, than send it back to Earth. In this situation we have nearly no need to continue planting wind farms for energy. Unlike solar fountains, as clean as they are, they take up space. A wind farm out in space would be the most ideal area to continue our clean energy project.

Along with these solar winds, solar flares can also be used for the bright light energy that they create, as well as the Sun’s normal light. The Sun at this point is essentially our largest untapped energy reserve that is entirely free and safe. The sun will be around long after human beings have left their five towns real estate, and even the planet Earth. Setting up solar panels to store the energy from this sunlight is something we are already doing on Earth. The only problem is we aren’t doing it fast enough. Solar energy is completely green and efficient. More countries, more companies, and more people need to start using this form of energy.

Solar flares can be dangerous and life threatening, but ultimately they can be harnessed for the benefit of mankind. If we show some respect to nature and be careful we can learn to use this great energy source.

Facts About The Moon

Moon is the only satellite of the earth. The moon evolves around the earth in 27.3 days. The atmosphere of the moon can be considered space.

The Russain’s spacecraft Lunik was the first to reach the moon in the year 1959. While the Apollo 8 was the first manned spacecraft send to the moon, in the year 1968. Upon it, the American astronomer Neil Armstrong whom was born on 1930. Neil Armstrong was the first man to step on the moon.

The American astronomer Alan Shepard (1923-1998) was on Apollo 13 in the year 1971, he managed to transfer the first color Television Broadcast from the surface of the moon. In that trip Alan Shepard drove two golf balls which landed miles away from him due to the absence of air on the moon.

The American geologist Dr. Eugene Shoemaker (1928-1997), was eager to be an astrnomer, but could not due to medical reasons. Dr. Eugene Shoemaker taught the astronauts about the crater of the moon in his life, and he wanted to be burried on the moon after his death. So in the year 1999, Dr. Eugene Shoemaker became the first man to be burried on the moon, as they his ashes was crashed onto a moon crater.

We can only see one face of the moon because the moon spin around itself exactly on the same period that it takes to revolve around the earth.

The dark parts that we can see on the moon are craters that are filled with basaltic lava due to old volcanoes.

Due to the low gravity of the moon, the astronauts can not walk but hop. The spacesuit weighs 30 pounds on the moon while it weighs 180 pounds on earth. Although it is limited, the moon’s gravity is the cause of tidal waves of the oceans on earth.

Who Discovered The Planets In Our Solar System?

The planets can be classified to two parts the first is the 4 inner planets that are composed from rocks and metals and they are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. The other part is the 4 outer planets which are different in the composition, where Jupiter and Saturn consist of hydrogen and helium, while Uranus and Neptune consists of ices of water, methane and ammonia.

Mercury is the smallest planet on the solar system, it is the nearest planet to the sun, it was first mentioned in the 14th century by an Assyrian astronomer. The Romans were the people that gave it the name.

Venus is the neighbour planet of the earth, it even considered the earth’s sister as they both are alike in their compositions and their gravity. Due to its shinning it has been noticed thousands of years ago. It was mentioned in the year 1032 by the Persian astronomer Avicenna (980-1037), the Romans gave it his name. Galileo Galilei  (1564-1642) the famous Italian scientist and astronomer proved that Venus orbits around the sun by his telescope.

Information about our planet Earth has been discovered throughout years, you can find those discoveries in the post Who Discovered The Truth About The Earth? The moon orbits around the Earth, it was first explored by the Russians in the years 1959-1976, but the first man whom walked on the moon was the American Neil Armstrong in the year 1969.

Mars the red planet is the other neighbour of the Earth, it was mentioned by the Babylonians and Egyptians and Greeks, each of them called it a different name but as the other planets the Romans gave it the name that we use now. There are two moons that orbit around Mars, they were discovered in the year 1877 by the American astronomer Asaph Hall (1829-1907).

Between the Inner planets and the Outer planets exists the Asteroid belt which are small planets. Some scientists believe that their number can reach up to 750 thousands planets, along with millions of asteroids. The first to suggest it, was Charles Bonnet (1720-1793) the  Swiss naturalist in the year 1766. Giuseppe Piazzi (1746-1826) the Italian priest was the first to notice it in the year 1801. In the year 1802, William Herschel (1738-1822) the German British astronomer called the objects asteroids.

Jupiter is the first planet on the outer planets. It was first noticed in the 7th century by the Babylonians. Jupiter was the first planet to be measured due to the researches of  Hippolyte Fizeau (1819-1896) a French physicist who noticed that using an array of small instruments, the diameter of a star can be measured. Then Albert Abraham Michelson (1852-1931) the American physicist used this information in the year 1891 to measure the Jupiter diameter.

Saturn is the second planet in the outer planets, it is distinguished by its rings. It was observed by the naked eye by the ancient Babylonians astronomers, also the ancient Romans gave it its name. Galileo Galilei was the first to notice Saturn’s rings in the year 1610, but he mistaken the rings for two moons. Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) a Dutch mathematician and astronomer discovered the rings and 4 planets of saturn. There are 62 moons that orbits around Saturn.

Next there is Uranus, that was first thought of as a star, John Flamsteed (1646-1719) the English astronomer was the first to observe the planet in the year 1690, William Herschel assured that fact after he invented his telescope.

Neptune is the last planet on the solar system. Galileo was the first to spot it in the year 1612.

There are also dwarf planets Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, Makemake and Iras.

Who Discovered Ozone, Ozone Layer, Its Depletion And The Ozone Hole?

In the year 1839, Friedrich Schönbein (1799-1868) the German-Swiss chemist reached for the discovery of Ozone O3.

The Ozone layer is one of the earth atmosphere layers. The earth atmosphere consist of many layers, starting with Troposphere layer, next there is Stratosphere layer, followed by Mesosphere layer, then Thermosphere layer, till we reach Exosphere layer which is the farthest from earth. These were the five main layers that are determined according to their temperature. But there is also other layers which are determined due to other properties. As the Ozone layer, the ionosphere layer, the homosphere layer and the planetary boundary layer.

The Ozone layer exists in the lower part of the second layer Stratosphere.  The Ozone layer consists of high concentration of Ozone, the Ozone layer extends between 20 to 30 Km, its thickness vary according to the seasons and the geography.

The Ozone layer main function is protecting the earth from the ultraviolet rays available in the sun rays.

In the year 1913, Maurice Charles Fabry (1867-1945) and Henri Buisson (1839-1905) the French physicists discovered the existence of the Ozone layer.

Through the years 1928 till 1958, Gordon Miller Bourne Dobson (1889-1976) the British physicist was able to reach for the Dobson unit, the Dobson unit is able to measure the atmospheric ozone density.

By the year 1976 the US Academy of scientists, announced that the Ozone layer is depleted. The main reason of the ozone layer depletion is the increase of the amount of chlorofluorocarbons.

In the year 1984, Joseph Farman born in 1930, the British geophysicist, along with Brian Gardiner and Jonathan Shanklin, the British meteorologists, they discovered the Ozone Hole. The Ozone hole is a part of the ozone layer which became thinner than it was supposed to be.