Science, Climate Change

I am an atmospheric scientist and have spent most of my career doing scientific research and assessing the global climate. The UN climate conference in Scotland, on climate change policy and the impact of global warming, helps to understand what the science is showing. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s “warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and many of the observed changes since the 1950s are unprecedented in decades or millennia. Substantial scientific evidence suggests that greenhouse gas emissions over the past century and a half have Increased volume is a driver of long-term climate change on Earth.

Atmospheric concentrations of some greenhouse gases are increasing due to human activities, and most of the world’s climatologists believe that this is a significant part of the cause of observed climate change. Continued emissions of greenhouse gases will lead to further warming and long-term changes in all components of the climate system, increasing the likelihood of severe, pervasive and irreversible impacts on people and ecosystems. “Human impact on the climate system is clear, and recent anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are the highest in history. Research already shows that since 1961, climate change has reduced incomes in poorer countries by 30% and reduced global agricultural productivity by 21%.

Research conducted by the Wisconsin Climate Change Impacts Initiative (WICCI), in collaboration with more than 200 scientists and practitioners, provides useful information on climate change impacts, strategies and adaptive solutions for carbon storage and carbon reduction. WICCI scientists continue to work with people across Wisconsin to fine-tune these models and provide predictions for other climate factors that are important to impacting Wisconsin.

To determine changes in temperature and rainfall in Wisconsin, scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison analyzed temperature records from a national network compiled by the National Climatic Data Center. WICCI climate scientists have taken global climate models that model climate change on a large scale (typically 100–200 miles) and scaled them down to about six miles.

The first part of each Physical Science Framework Assessment Report on Climate Change (from Working Group I) concludes that the evidence that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions have already impacted climate has increased. The third part of each IPCC assessment report (Working Group III) is devoted to climate change mitigation, outlining the prospects and options for change, especially in the energy sector, which accounts for 60% of emissions.

It will be followed in early April by the third part, which will assess humanity’s ability to combat climate change, including ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This publication replicates and builds on the long history of climate work from both national science academies, as well as the most recent assessment of climate change by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. It evaluates the experiences of communities in adapting to climate change and identifies the characteristics of fair and successful action, as well as opportunities for even greater change.

Explains the nature of the evidence for climate change, and the underlying mechanisms that have contributed to climate change throughout Earth’s history. Climate change, the cyclical changes in Earth’s climate caused by atmospheric changes and interactions between the atmosphere and various other geological, chemical, biological, and geographic factors in the Earth system. This paper explores the concept of climate change and change in a group of integrated natural features and processes known as the Earth system.

The pursuit of this understanding has led to the development of the history of the earth system, an interdisciplinary science that includes not only the contribution of earth system scientists, but also paleontologists (studying the life of past geological periods), paleoclimatologists (studying the climate of the past), paleoecologists (studying the environment and ecosystems of the past ), paleooceanographers (who study the history of the oceans), and other scientists interested in the history of the Earth. Evidence comes from direct measurements of rising surface air and subsurface ocean temperatures, as well as phenomena such as global mean sea level rise, glacier retreat, and changes in many physical and biological systems. Recently, geologists have helped improve estimates of climate sensitivity (defined as an increase in global mean temperature due to a doubling of CO 2 levels in the atmosphere).

Climate scientists are hard at work assessing future changes from rising carbon dioxide and other projected changes, such as world population. The Earth’s climate system is interconnected and complex, and even small changes in temperature can have a big impact on, for example, snow cover and sea levels. There will always be uncertainty in understanding such a complex system as the global climate.

As decision makers respond to these risks, the science of nations can contribute through research that will improve understanding of the causes and effects of climate change, as well as benefit decision makers at the local, regional, national and international levels. The US Department of Health and Human Services sees climate change as rising temperatures, humidity, rainfall and extreme weather as one of the top public health threats of our time.

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has confirmed the position of its Board of Directors and the leaders of 18 authoritative organizations, based on a wealth of scientific evidence, who have concluded that human rights-driven global climate change is currently taking place and that it is a growing threat to society bigger. . AAAS, along with leaders of 17 other major organizations, signed a letter sent to the U.S. Senate on October 21, 2009, based on rigorous research stating that human-induced climate change is continuing and will have consequences for society. broad impact. Including the global economy and the environment. This is the sixth such assessment by the UN climate group in just over three decades, and the warnings have grown even more dire.

As a scientist from the Bahamas, one of the low-coastal countries at high risk of climate change, Adele Thomas hopes this report will spur policymakers to limit warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius, urgently strengthen adaptation and address loss and damage. As a citizen of a vulnerable country, I hope that world leaders will take urgent and accelerated action to adapt to climate change by quickly and significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

In the United States, climate-related natural disasters such as hurricanes, droughts, and fires caused almost $100 billion in damage to businesses, property, and infrastructure in 2020, up from an average of $18 billion per year in the 1980s.

The report of the IPCC Working Groups I and II (Physical Sciences and Impacts/Adaptation) was published in September 2019 in the journal Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate.

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