Soap is composed of salt, alkaline and fats and Detergents are alkylbenzenesulfonates which make more soluble in hard water than the soap. Soap is made through adding liquid alkali to heated fats or oil. Detergents are made from surfactants that cleans better than soap in hard water, it also contains enzymes, bleaches and blue dye. Enzymes are used to take off the protein stains, the bleaches are used to take the colored stains off, while the blue dye importance is to get rid of the yellowing that is produced due to the use of the bleaches.
The first people that used soap for cleaning are the Babylonians about 5000 years ago by combining water, alkali and cassia oil, while the Ancient Egyptians 3500 years ago made soap out of vegetable and animal oil with alkalies salt. In the twelve century the Arabs used a soap made of alkali, by the fifteen century France started the industry soap then followed by England. In the sixteen century soap was developed by using vegetables oil. The Romans were the first to give the name of the soap (sapo) after mixing tallow with ashes but the mixture was not used for cleaning. In the year 1789 the high quality soap industry started by Andrew Pears, and a low priced but still have good quality was produced by William Gossage in the year 1850.
Robert Spear Hudson was the first to grind the soap introducing soap powder in the year 1837.
While the liquid soap was invented in the year 1800 by William Shepphard.
Otto Rohm was the first to use enzymes in the detergent laundry in the year 1900.
Proctor and Gamble was the first to manufacture the washing detergent in the year 1920 to replace the soap flakes.
Dishwashing liquid is a specialized soap for cleaning the dishes and cooking utensils. There are also detergents specialized in cleaning glass, metal, toilet, and all purposes.