What Is Synthetic Biology?

As we mentioned in the Introduction to Synthetic Biology, Synthetic Biology (SynBio) is a field of scientific research that involves the modification and redesign of the biological components, systems, and interactions that make up life. The ability to design and manufacture biological systems has expanded over the past decade due to significant advances in science and technology in all areas related to synthetic biology (SynBio). While genetic engineering transfers ready-made genetic material between organisms, SynBio creates new genetic material from scratch.

Genetic engineering generally involves the transfer of a single gene from one microorganism or cell to another. Synthetic biology involves assembling new microbial genomes from a standardized set of genetic parts, which are then integrated into microorganisms or cells. Synthetic biology involves designing and creating new artificial biological pathways, organisms and devices, or redesigning existing natural biological systems. Synthetic biology (SynBio) involves the design and construction of biological systems and devices, often based on components encoded in DNA, and the application of biological systems and devices to useful purposes. This field of study in synthetic biology (SynBio), which means “by computer”, uses computational modeling to design and predict new biological systems.

Synthetic biology (SynBio) is an interdisciplinary science involving many fields, including biology, engineering, and computer science, with potential applications in manufacturing, human health, agriculture, and ecosystem conservation. Engineers view biology as a technology (in other words, the system includes biotechnology or its bioengineering) [33]. Synthetic biology includes the broad redefinition and expansion of biotechnology with the ultimate goal of designing and building the ability to engineer biological systems. Process information, manipulate chemicals, manufacture materials and structures, produce energy, provide food, maintain and improve human health, and expand fundamental knowledge about biological systems (see Biomedical Engineering) and our own environment. Synthetic biology and its engineering vision aim to overcome fundamental deficiencies in system design and fabrication by developing fundamental principles and techniques, ultimately enabling systematic advanced engineering of (parts of) biological systems for new and improved applications (Graph Biology). Provides innovative approaches for developing new biological systems or redesigning existing biological systems for useful purposes (see Figure 1).

In addition to motivating the development of more robust operating systems, insights gained through synthetic approaches contribute to our understanding of natural biological systems [47]. Encouraging applications come from a variety of fields, such as artificial gene network design (Sprinzak and Elowitz, 2005), small genome remodeling (Chan et al., 2005), and signaling pathway reprogramming (Dueber et al., 2003). ) or metabolic engineering (Martin et al., 2003), known as synthetic biology. The goal is often to extract parts of natural biological systems, characterize and simplify them, and then use them as components of engineered biological systems. Several disciplines are using synthetic biology approaches, including metabolic engineering, minimal genomes, regulatory circuits, and orthogonal biological systems, and ongoing research across all disciplines is required to test new ideas and develop new research products and tools.

Setting ambitious synthetic targets can help deepen our understanding of the close relationship between chemistry and life at the regulatory level and better understand new properties of complex biological systems. As before, the motivation was less to create toys than to use synthetic targets to discover the principles linking signaling chemistry to emerging regulatory properties in complex biology. One indicator of the success of synthetic biology is how much effort goes into assembling existing biological parts into machines, and how much effort goes into creating artificial systems that replicate new properties of living systems that will contribute to new discoveries and new theories. Biosafety, ethics and technology transfer While we are still far from it, synthetic biology could pave the way for the design of living systems, just as we design new dishwashers, cars, computers or airplanes.

According to this vision, even a newer password should be able to count on a list of standardized parts (amino acids, bases, proteins, genes, chains, cells, etc.) whose properties have been quantified, and tools Software modeling will help assemble the parts together to create a new biological function. Taken to the extreme, synthetic biology is an engineering discipline and therefore requires standard parts that can be assembled with bioinformatics and simulation tools to create circuits that introduce or modify biological functions. Synthetic biology is emerging as a biodesign platform where design-build-test-iteration (or deployment) can be used to predictably create cells or organisms capable of producing a wide variety of new molecules, materials, or even reusable cells. Applications. Synthetic biologists attempt to assemble components that are not natural (hence synthetic) to create chemical systems that support Darwinian (hence biological) evolution.

Model design of synthetic gene chains has demonstrated the ability to design chains with a given function [41-43]; The differences between the implemented models and schemes revealed important and unique aspects of the behavior of a biological system, such as the effects of degradation processes, cooperativity, and noise [44-46]. Various groups developed synthetic genetic circuits 7 years ago, before the term “synthetic biology” became so widespread (Becskei and Serrano, 2000; Elowitz and Leibler, 2000; Gardner and Collins, 2000; Gardner et al, 2000; Becskei et al. et al., 2001). In early 2006, Dr. Jay Kisling, director of the Berkeley Center for Synthetic Biology, and three Ph.D. researchers discovered and engineered a yeast containing bacterial and absinthe genes in a chemical plant to produce the precursor artemisinin from a cheap antimalarial drug. Synthetic biology (SynBio) is a branch of science that covers a wide range of methodologies from various disciplines such as biotechnology, genetic engineering, molecular biology, molecular engineering, systems biology, membrane science, biophysics, chemical and biological engineering, electrical engineering and computer science. . engineering, control engineering and evolutionary biology.

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