The atmospheric air is the several gases surrounding earth. It is one of the fundamental factors of starting life on earth and its continuity. The atmospheric air is considered the main cause of life on earth, as it is essential in the photosynthesis process and respiration.
The atmospheric air consists of several gases: Oxygen with the percentage of 20.95%, Argon with the percentage that reaches 0.93%, Carbon Dioxide with the percentage 0.039%, along with some other gases, and the main component is Nitrogen with the percentage of 78.09%. There is also a variable amount of water vapour in the atmospheric air, the water vapour varies due to the season, the geographical location, altitude and other factors.
Nitrogen gas was the first component of the air to be noticed, as it was suspected in the year 1910 by the English physicist John William Strutt. Nitrogen gas the main component of air was isolated in the year 1772 by the Scottish physician and chemist Daniel Rutherford (1749-1819). Also there were other scientists in different parts that were able to reach for the nitrogen as well, as by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Antoine Lavoisier, Henry Cavendish, and Joseph Priestley.
Carbon dioxide gas was first noticed by the Flemish chemist and physician Jan Baptist van Helmont (1579-1644). In the year 1750 the Scottish physician and chemist Joseph Black (1728-1799) was able to discover more properties of carbon dioxide. In the year 1772, Joseph Priestley was able to isolate the carbon dioxide. In the year 1823, the British chemists Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829) and Michael Faraday (1791-1867) were able to liquify carbon dioxide.
Oxygen gas was first discovered in the year 1772, by the Swedish pharmacist Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786). The British chemist Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) was able to announce about the oxygen in 1774. In the year 1877, the French physicist Louis-Paul Cailletet (1832-1913) was able to liquify oxygen.
In the year 1785 the British scientist Henry Cavendish (1731-1810) guessed that the argon gas (one of the noble gas) is one of the components of air. The first to prove that were John William Strutt (1842-1919) the English physicist and William Ramsay (1852-1916) the Scottish chemist. They were able to isolate the gas from the air.
Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) the famous English physicist, mathematician and astronomer, was the first to mention the air resistance in his laws of motion. He also discovered about the air pressure.